Artificial insemination in farm animals
Artificial insemination (AI) is the introduction of male reproductive cells into the female reproductive tract by an artificial means. A.I. is primarily an economical measure in that fewer bulls are required and maximum use can be made of the best sire.
Advantages of A.IAI has following advantages
- Increases the usefulness of superior sire to an extra-ordinary degreeThe germplasm of the superior sire can be used for insemination to several cows at the same time.
- The services of superior sire are greatly extended by A.I.It reduces the cost of transport of the sire and saves time along with dissemination of superior germplasm to several dams simultaneously.
- Reduces the management of herd sire/bullThe breeder does not need to maintain a herd sire and thus can avoid the botherations accompanied with the management of bull. It helps to regulate the breeding programme and the space between successive calving without unnecessarily prolonging the dry period.
- AI avoids inbreedingThe dairyman does not have the problem of searching and purchasing a new herd sire every two years to avoid in-breeding.
- Overcomes the difficulty of size and weightAI bypasses the obstacles of size and weight faced by several breeders during cross between dam and sire of desired genetic characteristics.
- Increase rate of conceptionAI has found to have higher conception rate than the normal breeding. Moreover, there is no animal transport so AI can be performed anytime as per the oestrus cycle of the dam.
- Outstanding animals located apart can be matedThere is no animal transport required in AI, so AI can be performed anytime as per the oestrus cycle of the dam.
- Helps in better record keepingIn a dairy farm, it is much easy to keep proper records of AI than normal breeding due to its time saving procedure and much convenient process than normal breeding.
- Old heavy and injured sires can be used with advantagesSeveral old sires of heavy body weight but superior germplasm which cannot be transported, have an added advantage of their germplasm collection for AI service.
Limitation of A.I.
- Requires well trained operations and special equipmentsAI needs well trained personnels/ field veterinarians along with AI gun for conducting the task.
- Necessitates the knowledge of structure and function of reproduction on the part of the operatorThe person conducting AI must have thorough knowledge of the anatomy of female reproductive tract of cow for the correct deposition of semen inside the uterus.
- Market of bull reduces while that for the superior germ plasm is increased TAI being an easy and convenient process, the market demand of bull reduces.
- Selection of sire should be very rigid in all respectThe selection of sire for the desired traits should be done by a breeding expert as the germplasm of the selected bull will be distributed to several dams at the same time and the same bull will be used for future breeding as well.