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Ruminants

Symptoms of Foot and Mouth Disease

Foot and Mouth Disease, also known as FMD in short, is a very severe and highly contagious viral disease that occurs in the livestock, especially cattle, swine, sheep, goats and other cloven-hoofed animals. It has a significant economic impact as it is a transboundary animal disease (TAD) that deeply affects the productivity and yields of the livestock, which in turn disrupts the business.

Animals involved in intensive farming, also known as factory farming, are more susceptible to foot and mouth disease as compared to traditional breeds. Though foot and mouth disease is hardly fatal among adult animals, young animals tend to succumb to the disease quickly.

What causes Foot and Mouth Disease?

Aphthovirus is the organism that causes foot and mouth disease. This virus has seven strains that are prevalent in different countries across to the globe. Each strain requires a specific vaccine to provide immunity to the infected animal keep the virus at bay. Foot and mouth disease is listed in the World Organization for Animal Health, also known as OIE. If the herd or the animal is infected with FMD, it must be reported to the organization.

This disease is characterized by fever and blisters on the tongue, lips, inside the mouth, between the hooves and on the teats. It leads to severe losses in production and the quality of yield. Though the animals may recover from the disease, they are often left in a weakened state.

How does Foot and Mouth Disease spread?

FMD is usually transmitted through the excretions and secretions from infected animals. It can also spread through air currents when infected animals breathe and affect other animals via oral and respiratory routes. FMD also spreads through contaminated pens/sheds, feed, equipment, and more.

What are the symptoms of Foot and Mouth Disease?

The symptoms can range from mild to severe. The clinical symptoms of Foot and Mouth disease include:

High fever– If an animal is affected with Foot and Mouth Disease, it is characterized by extremely high fever, where the body temperature reaches 104 – 106° F (41° C)

Anorexia – This is characterized by an abnormally low body weight and loss of appetite

Hypersalivation – In this condition, the salivary glands continually produce excess saliva than usual. When the saliva accumulates, it might drip out of the animal’s mouth unintentionally.

Mastitis – Bovine Mastitis is a condition in which there is a persistent inflammation in the udder tissue and mammary gland of the animal. This often leads to reduced milk production and low milk quality in dairy animals. This can be controlled with the help of anti-inflammatory creams, ointments and sprays such as Wisprec by Natural Remedies. Click on the link below to know more about the product:

https://www.naturalremedy.com/india/ruminant/mammary-care/wisprec-advanced-cream-spray

Some of the other most common symptoms include smacking of lips, constant grinding of teeth (bruxism), lameness, stamping or kicking of feet, oral ulcers, and development of vesicles within the mouth, nasal membranes and the mammary glands.

Animals usually take about 8 – 15 days to recover from foot and mouth disease, but there are several complications that remain, including, tongue erosions, deformations in the hoofs, permanent impairment or lower quality of milk production, permanent loss of weight, abortion, and weakness.