Foot and Mouth Disease, also known as FMD in short, is a very severe and highly contagious viral
disease that occurs in the livestock, especially cattle, swine, sheep, goats
and other cloven-hoofed
animals. It has a significant economic impact as it is a transboundary animal disease (TAD) that
deeply affects the productivity and yields of the livestock, which in turn disrupts the business.
Animals involved in intensive farming, also known as factory farming, are more susceptible to foot
and mouth disease as compared to traditional breeds. Though foot and mouth disease is hardly fatal
among adult animals, young animals tend to succumb to the disease quickly.
What causes Foot and Mouth Disease?
Aphthovirus is the organism that causes foot and mouth disease. This virus has seven strains that are
prevalent in different countries across to the globe. Each strain requires a specific vaccine to provide
immunity to the infected animal keep the virus at bay. Foot and mouth disease is listed in the World
Organization for Animal Health, also known as OIE. If the herd or the animal is infected with FMD, it
must be reported to the organization.
This disease is characterized by fever and blisters on the tongue, lips, inside the mouth, between the
hooves and on the teats. It leads to severe losses in production and the quality of yield. Though the
animals may recover from the disease, they are often left in a weakened state.
How does Foot and Mouth Disease spread?
FMD is usually transmitted through the excretions and secretions from infected animals. It can also
spread through air currents when infected animals breathe and affect other animals via oral and
respiratory routes. FMD also spreads through contaminated pens/sheds, feed, equipment, and
What are the symptoms of Foot and Mouth Disease?
The symptoms can range from mild to severe. The clinical symptoms of Foot and Mouth disease
If an animal is affected with Foot and Mouth Disease, it is characterized by extremely
high fever, where the body temperature reaches 104 – 106° F (41° C)
This is characterized by an abnormally low body weight and loss of appetite
In this condition, the salivary glands continually produce excess saliva than usual.
When the saliva accumulates, it might drip out of the animal’s mouth unintentionally.
is a condition in which there is a persistent inflammation in the udder
tissue and mammary gland of the animal. This often leads to reduced milk production and low milk
quality in dairy animals. This can be controlled with the help of anti-inflammatory creams, ointments
and sprays such as Wisprec by Natural Remedies
Some of the other most common symptoms include smacking of lips, constant grinding of teeth
(bruxism), lameness, stamping or kicking of feet, oral ulcers, and development of vesicles within the
mouth, nasal membranes and the mammary glands.
Animals usually take about 8 – 15 days to recover from foot and mouth disease, but there are
several complications that remain, including, tongue erosions, deformations in the hoofs, permanent
impairment or lower quality of milk production, permanent loss of weight, abortion, and weakness.